Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XC) is a rare inflammatory entity of the gallbladder characterized by a focal or diffuse destructive inflammatory process, with accumulation of layers of macrophage lipid, fibrous tissues and acute and chronic inflammatory cells. This disease is known since the 1970s with the descriptive term fibro-xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, but it was first described in 1981 by Goodman and Ishak. Although it is a benign entity, imaging techniques are often not definitive to rule out gallbladder cancer, with recognized poor prognosis.
This study presents the case of a woman with a preoperative diagnosis of suspected vesicular neoplastic process with infiltration in the duodenum, not confirmed histologically. The difficulty of a clear differential diagnosis after the use of imaging techniques, provides clinical relevance to the pathology.
Key words: Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis; Gallbladder Carcinoma; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.